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Messages are cryptographically signed by the sender and then transmitted directly to the recipient.
A payment channel is closed just once, at the end of a series of transfers. Because of this, only one of the messages sent is redeemed.
This is why each message specifies a cumulative total amount of Ether owed, rather than the amount of the individual micropayment. The recipient will naturally choose to redeem the most recent message because that is the one with the highest total.
The nonce per-message is not needed anymore, because the smart contract only honors a single message. The address of the smart contract is still used to prevent a message intended for one payment channel from being used for a different channel.
Closing the channel pays the recipient the Ether they are owed and destroys the contract, sending any remaining Ether back to Alice.
To close the channel, Bob needs to provide a message signed by Alice. The smart contract must verify that the message contains a valid signature from the sender.
Only the payment channel recipient can call the close function, who naturally passes the most recent payment message because that message carries the highest total owed.
If the sender were allowed to call this function, they could provide a message with a lower amount and cheat the recipient out of what they are owed.
The function verifies the signed message matches the given parameters. If everything checks out, the recipient is sent their portion of the Ether, and the sender is sent the rest via a selfdestruct.
You can see the close function in the full contract. Bob can close the payment channel at any time, but if they fail to do so, Alice needs a way to recover their escrowed funds.
An expiration time was set at the time of contract deployment. Once that time is reached, Alice can call claimTimeout to recover their funds.
You can see the claimTimeout function in the full contract. After this function is called, Bob can no longer receive any Ether, so it is important that Bob closes the channel before the expiration is reached.
The function splitSignature does not use all security checks. Otherwise there is no guarantee that the recipient will be able to get paid in the end.
Solidity v0. Interaction beneficiary. Inactive ; seller. Created condition msg. The contract will work as follows: Alice deploys the ReceiverPays contract, attaching enough Ether to cover the payments that will be made.
Alice authorises a payment by signing a message with their private key. Alice sends the cryptographically signed message to Bob.
The message does not need to be kept secret explained later , and the mechanism for sending it does not matter.
Bob claims their payment by presenting the signed message to the smart contract, it verifies the authenticity of the message and then releases the funds.
The amount to be transferred. Protection against replay attacks. For the latest innovations and solutions from ST, sign up for our newsletters.
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Abstract As the development of online commercial transactions, the transactions that involve small amount of money are becoming popular.
However, the existing micropayment systems are either not efficient enough for micropayment or too complicated and expensive for extensive application.
A new credit based micropayment scheme is proposed in this paper. With only reasonable security performance, the efficiency of the scheme gets higher and the implementation is much cheaper, thus it is very suitable for extensive application.
With reference to the mature credit card system, a credit mechanism was built in this scheme to achieve the better performance and lower cost.
On the other hand, good practicability and strict anonymity are provided. Authors Close. Assign yourself or invite other person as author.
It allow to create list of users contirbution. Assignment does not change access privileges to resource content.
It had no success with that business model, however, so switched its focus to a digital wallet. In March , Confinity merged with X.
In , PayPal acquired the VeriSign payment solution to provide added security support. By , PayPal had over million active user accounts in markets through 25 different currencies.
The denial of service attacks occurred in December , after PayPal stopped processing donations to WikiLeaks. On December 5, , 13 of the PayPal 14 pleaded guilty to misdemeanor and felony charges related to the attacks.
The company continued to build its Merchant Services division, providing e-payments for retailers on eBay. In , PayPal announced that it would begin moving its business offline so that customers can make payments via PayPal in stores.
In , PayPal acquired IronPearl, a Palo Alto startup offering engagement software,  and Braintree , a Chicago -based payment gateway , to further product development and mobile services.
It was announced on September 30, , that eBay would spin off PayPal into a separate publicly traded company, a move demanded in by activist hedge fund magnate Carl Icahn.
The spin-off was completed on July 18, PayPal will cease to process card payments for eBay at that time.
On July 1, , PayPal announced that it was acquiring digital money transfer company Xoom Corporation. The deal was closed in the fourth quarter of Me", a service that allows users to send a custom link to request funds via text, email, or other messaging platforms.
Me was to create a mobile-first user experience that enables faster payment sharing than PayPal's traditional tools.
This was PayPal's largest acquisition until late November and the company claims that it is the in-store expertise and digital marketing strength that will complement its own online and mobile payment services.
On March 19, , PayPal announced their partnership with Instagram as part of the company's new checkout feature, "Checkout on Instagram". In December , Google announced that Ready would become the new commerce chief.
This is PayPal's largest acquisition to date, and their most recent. The PayPal European headquarters are located in Luxembourg and the international headquarters are in Singapore.
PayPal opened a technology center in Scottsdale, Arizona in ,  and a software development center in Chennai , India in As of [update] , PayPal operates in markets and has million active, registered accounts.
PayPal allows customers to send, receive, and hold funds in 25 currencies worldwide. PayPal's services allow people to make financial transactions online by granting the ability to transfer funds electronically between individuals and businesses.
It is not necessary to have a PayPal account to use the company's services. From to , PayPal operated Student Accounts, allowing parents to set up a student account, transfer money into it, and obtain a debit card for student use.
The program provided tools to teach how to spend money wisely and take responsibility for actions. In November , PayPal opened its platform, allowing other services to get access to its code and to use its infrastructure in order to enable peer-to-peer online transactions.
PayPal Credit offers shoppers access to an instant online revolving line of credit at thousands of vendors that accept PayPal, subject to credit approval.
PayPal Credit allows consumers to shop online in much the same way as they would with a traditional credit card.
One year after acquiring Braintree , PayPal introduced its "One Touch" service, which allows users to pay with a one-touch option on participating merchants websites or apps.
In , the company launched "PayPal Here", a small business mobile payment system that includes a combination of a free mobile app and a small card-reader that plugs into a smart phone.
PayPal launched an updated app for iOS and Android in that expanded its mobile app capabilities by allowing users to search for local shops and restaurants that accept PayPal payments, order ahead at participating venues, and access their PayPal Credit accounts formerly known as Bill Me Later.
Second, we began expanding PayPal to eBay's international sites. And third, we started to build PayPal's business off eBay.
In the first phase, payment volumes were coming mostly from the eBay auction website. The system was very attractive to auction sellers, most of which were individuals or small businesses that were unable to accept credit cards, and for consumers as well.
In fact, many sellers could not qualify for a credit card Merchant account because they lacked a commercial credit history.
The service also appealed to auction buyers because they could fund PayPal accounts using credit cards or bank account balances, without divulging credit card numbers to unknown sellers.
Until , PayPal's strategy was to earn interest on funds in PayPal accounts. However, most recipients of PayPal credits withdrew funds immediately.
To solve this problem, PayPal tailored its product to cater more to business accounts. Instead of relying on interests earned from deposited funds, PayPal started relying on earnings from service charges.
They offered seller protection to PayPal account holders, provided that they comply with reimbursement policies.
After fine-tuning PayPal's business model and increasing its domestic and international penetration on eBay, PayPal started its off-eBay strategy.
This was based on developing stronger growth in active users by adding users across multiple platforms, despite the slowdown in on-eBay growth and low-single-digit user growth on the eBay site.
A late reorganization created a new business unit within PayPal—Merchant Services—to provide payment solutions to small and large e-commerce merchants outside the eBay auction community.
Starting in the second half of , PayPal Merchant Services unveiled several initiatives to enroll online merchants outside the eBay auction community, including: .
Different countries have different conditions: Send only Package Service allows sending only, valid in 97 countries , PayPal Zero package suggests the possibility of enrollment, entry, and withdrawal of funds in foreign currency, but the user can not hold the balance PayPal account, operates in 18 countries , SRW Send - Receive - Withdrawal the possibility of enrollment, input-output and the ability to keep your PayPal account balance in the currency and to transfer to the card when the user sees fit, operates in 41 countries and Local Currency SRW plus opportunity to conduct transactions in the local currency, 21 countries.
In January , PayPal ceased operations in Crimea in compliance with international sanctions against Russia and Crimea.
PayPal has disabled sending and receiving personal payments in India, thus forcing all recipients to pay a transaction fee.
PayPal plans to make India an incubation center for the company's employee engagement policies. In , PayPal hired people for its offices in Chennai and Bangaluru.
On 8 November , PayPal launched domestic operations under PayPal Payments Private Limited and now provides digital payment solutions for merchants and customers in India.
PayPal is available in Israel  but is not available in the Palestinian territories. This discrepancy has prompted Palestinian tech companies to seek a policy change from PayPal.
In late March , new Japanese banking regulations forced PayPal Japan to suspend the ability of personal account holders registered in Japan from sending or receiving money between individuals and as a result are now subject to PayPal's business fees on all transactions.
In Pakistan, users can use Xoom , a money transfer service owned by PayPal. Govt of Pakistan is trying to convince PayPal administration to launch its service in Pakistan, But PayPal is not ready to introduce its services in Pakistan.
Eight years after the company first started operating in the country, Paypal ceased operations in Turkey on 6 June when Turkish financial regulator BDDK denied it a payment license.
The regulators had demanded that PayPal's data centers be located inside Turkey to facilitate compliance with government and court orders to block content and to generate tax revenue.
PayPal said that the closure will affect tens of thousands of businesses and hundreds of thousands of consumers in Turkey. PayPal Giving Fund is a registered charity supported by Paypal that streamlines donations to nonprofit organizations.
PayPal launches different marketing activities in various channels and emphasizes that consumers can use it in different ways.
PayPal provides free analytics to traders about the ways that consumers utilise online payments. PayPal's code gathers the consumer information which can be installed on the trader's website.
Thiel, a founder of PayPal, has stated that PayPal is not a bank because it does not engage in fractional-reserve banking.
In the United States , PayPal is licensed as a money transmitter , on a state-by-state basis. Ordinarily, a credit card transaction, specifically the relationship between the issuing bank and the cardholder, is governed by the Truth in Lending Act TILA 15 U.
Basically, unless a PayPal transaction is funded with a credit card, the consumer has no recourse in the event of fraud by the seller.
In , PayPal Europe was granted a Luxembourg banking license, which, under European Union law, allows it to conduct banking business throughout the EU.
This ceased in , when the company moved to Luxembourg. In India , as of January , PayPal has no cross-border money transfer authorization.
In Australia , PayPal is licensed as an authorised deposit-taking institution ADI and is thus subject to Australian banking laws and regulations.
In Singapore, PayPal is the holder of a stored value facility that does not require the approval of the Monetary Authority of Singapore.
The PayPal Buyer Protection Policy states that the customer may file a buyer complaint if he or she did not receive an item or if the item he or she purchased was significantly not as described.
The customer can open a dispute within days for registered UK residents days, changed 14 June from the date of payment and escalate it to a claim within 20 days from opening the dispute.
If the buyer used a credit card, he or she might get a refund via chargeback from his or her credit-card company. However, in the UK, where such a purchaser is entitled to specific statutory protections that the credit card company is a second party to the purchase and is therefore equally liable in law if the other party defaults or goes into liquidation under Section 75 Consumer Credit Act , the purchaser loses this legal protection if the card payment is processed via PayPal.
Also, the Financial Ombudsman Service position is that section 75 protection does not apply where PayPal or any eMoney service becomes involved in the credit card transaction.
This leaves consumers with no recourse to pursue their complaint with the Financial Ombudsman Service. They only have recourse with the courts.
This is a legal authority that section 75 protection does exist where one has paid on a credit card for a product, via an eMoney service.
In general, the Seller Protection Policy is intended to protect the seller from certain kinds of chargebacks or complaints if the seller meets certain conditions including proof of delivery to the buyer.
PayPal states the Seller Protection Policy is "designed to protect sellers against claims by buyers of unauthorized payments and against claims of non-receipt of any merchandise".
The policy includes a list of "Exclusions" which itself includes "Intangible goods", "Claims for receipt of goods 'not as described ' ", and "Total reversals over the annual limit".
In early , PayPal introduced an optional security key as an additional precaution against fraud. Account-holders enter their login ID and password as normal but are then prompted to enter a six-digit code provided by a credit card sized hardware security key or a text message sent to the account holder's mobile phone.
For convenience, users may append the code generated by the hardware key to their password in the login screen.
This way they are not prompted for it on another page. This method is required for some services, such as when using PayPal through the eBay application on iPhone.
This two-factor authentication is intended to make it difficult for an account to be compromised by a malicious third party without access to the physical security key, although it does not prevent the so-called Man in the Browser MITB attacks.
However, the user or malicious third party can alternatively authenticate by providing the credit card or bank account number listed on their account.
Thus the PayPal implementation does not offer the security of true two-factor authentication. As early as , PayPal had substantial problems with online fraud , especially international hackers who were hacking into PayPal accounts and transferring small amounts of money out of multiple accounts.
Standard solutions for merchant and banking fraud might use government criminal sanctions to pursue the fraudsters.
But with PayPal losing millions of dollars each month to fraud while experiencing difficulties with using the FBI to pursue cases of international fraud, PayPal developed a private solution: a "fraud monitoring system that used artificial intelligence to detect potentially fraudulent transactions.
Rather than treating the problem of fraud as a legal problem , the company treated it as a risk management one. In , , Spanish card holders had their funds frozen in an apparent fraud case involving a PayPal service provider, Younique Money, which was the de facto administrator of the cards.
As of March most funds had not been returned. In , PayPal voluntarily ceased serving as a payment intermediary between gambling websites and their online customers.
At the time of this cessation, it was the largest payment processor for online gambling transactions.
In , PayPal resumed accepting such transactions, but only in those countries where online gambling is legal, and only for sites which are properly licensed to operate in said jurisdictions.
If an account is subject to fraud or unauthorized use, PayPal puts the "Limited Access" designation on the account. PayPal has had several notable cases in which the company has frozen the account of users such as Richard Kyanka, owner of the website Something Awful , in September ,  Cryptome in March ,    or April Winchell , the owner of Regretsy, in December The account was reinstated, and PayPal apologized and donated to her cause.
Persson stated publicly that he had not received a clear explanation of why the account was frozen, and that PayPal was threatening to keep the money if they found anything wrong.
PayPal's partner MasterCard ceased taking donations to WikiLeaks in , and PayPal also suspended, and later permanently restricted, payments to the website after the U.
State Department deemed WikiLeaks activities as illegal. Online supporters and activists retaliated by subjecting PayPal and MasterCard, along with other companies, to coordinated cyber attacks.
In February PayPal unbanned the account of a website that supports Iraq War resisters after it had enough information to fulfill its know your customer guidelines.
The Chelsea Manning Support Network claimed the backdown was a reaction to a petition to the company to reinstate the account.
In May , PayPal declined to pay a reward offered in its Bug Bounty Program  to a year-old German student who had reported a cross-site scripting flaw on its site.
In August , entrepreneurs who had used PayPal to collect the funds they raised on crowdfunding platforms like Kickstarter and Indiegogo reported difficulty in being able to withdraw the money.
In May PayPal blocked the account of a Russian human rights organisation "RosUznik", which supported political prisoners arrested at Bolotnaya Square case.
As of January , a class-action lawsuit against PayPal has been filed in Israel ,  claiming that they arbitrarily freeze accounts and hold funds for up to days without paying interest and thereby directly profit from it.
The lawsuit requests that PayPal be declared a monopoly and thus regulated accordingly. In May PayPal blocked an account intended to raise money for the distribution of Boris Nemtsov 's report " Putin.
War ". By , ConsumerAffairs had received over 1, consumer complaints relating to PayPal policies. In February , PayPal froze the account of News Media Canada , a Canadian trade association , in response to a payment from The Reminder , a Flin Flon , Manitoba community newspaper , intended to cover the fee for the Reminder's submission of articles for consideration in a nationwide journalism contest run by News Media Canada, including one discussing Syrian refugees.
PayPal cited United States regulations as a reason for flagging the transaction between Canadian entities.
In September , PayPal banned radio host Alex Jones and his website InfoWars , claiming that his site has content that was hateful and discriminatory against certain religious groups.
PayPal discontinued payments to Pornhub models on November 14, ,  alleging that "Pornhub has made certain business payments through PayPal without seeking our permission".
Most of the allegations concerned PayPal's dispute resolution procedures. The two lawsuits were merged into one class-action lawsuit In re: PayPal litigation.
An informal settlement was reached in November , and a formal settlement was signed on June 11, PayPal denied any wrongdoing. In June , Stamps.
In a license agreement, Stamps. PayPal Inc. They sued, alleging illegal misappropriation of customer accounts and detailed their customer service experiences, including freezing deposited funds for up to days until disputes were resolved by PayPal.
PayPal argued that the plaintiffs were required to arbitrate their disputes under the American Arbitration Association 's Commercial Arbitration Rules.
The court ruled against PayPal, stating that "the User Agreement and arbitration clause are substantively unconscionable under California law.
The claimants accused PayPal of deliberately failing to notify its customers that ICC-Cal was illegally charging them for currency conversion fees.
A class-action lawsuit filed in was settled in , in which the plaintiffs contested PayPal's "holds" on funds. PayPal which has yet to be ratified.
As part of the settlement, the company agreed to change some of its policies. It alleged that PayPal had promised discounts and payment options the consumers never received, and that users trying to sign up for the regular, non-credit, PayPal accounts were signed up for credit accounts instead.
Redirected from Paypal. Type of business Public Type of site. Further information: Timeline of PayPal. Main article: Security token.
See also: Criticism of eBay. Retrieved April 7, Retrieved August 27, Retrieved June 16, Alexa Internet. For the latest innovations and solutions from ST, sign up for our newsletters.
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